it wasn't meant as a horribly detailed tutorial. It was meant as a VERY simple tutorial for those that might have not understood why the functions were used. I had it on the computer and i decided to add it to the 'tutorials' section cuz there were no other tutorials on the subject. I didn't use $_ because it might have very well confused those starting out. When in my comment i used 'return', i did not mean literally, i just meant it would 'output' and i feel the need to chomp arrays or hashes cuz again, i wanted it to be a very simple tutorial. I very well understand why you downvoted the tutorial and hope the explanation i gave helped you understand why i wrote it very basically :).